Nurse’s Corner

Nurse’s Corner

Health lecture for teenagers 
 
13: 00 ~ 13: 40   G4 ~ G6
13: 50 ~ 14: 30   G7 ~ G9

☀
 Purpose:

On May 21st ,we are going to hold a health lecture for "The process of understanding growth and development" to maintain teenager's physiological/psychological development.

☀ Course content: 
1. Physiology of puberty.
2. Body changes during the development period.
3. What is menstruation ?
 
☀It is a positive and healthy course that can help students know more about themselves.

Measles

On March 29, 2018, a man was discovered to be infected with measles while traveling in Thailand, Taiwan and Japan. Although the patient did not show any symptoms at the time, he was already contagious and may be infecting measles to both the crew members and passengers of Tiger Airways. It was later discovered that more than 60 individuals were infected with aforementioned disease, making it the first case of measles outbreak in four years.

Similar outbreak occurred after a visitor was diagnosed and hospitalized at Chang Gung Memorial Hospital after showing symptoms of measles upon returning from Macau to Taiwan.

In total, there have been 23 confirmed cases of measles infection since its first discovery. Furthermore, over 4,400 individuals have come in contact with the infected.

What is Measles and what are the Symptoms ?

Generally speaking, measles is a highly contagious disease caused by a virus that can sustain itself in a person’s nose or throat. When the infected person coughs or sneezes, the virus can be sprayed out of the body and survive in the air for up to two hours. During this period, other individuals may be infected if they were in contact with the virus via inhalation or touching surfaces that are not sanitized.

When a person is infected with measles, he/she will be contagious for the first eight days of infection. The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) stated that approximately 90% of people who are in close contact with the infected will be affected by the disease.

At its early stage, the symptoms of measles are akin to that of common colds, which may include the followings:

  • The early onset symptoms are high fever, cough, runny nose, red itchy eyes (conjunctivitis), and high fever for 4 to 7 days.
  • White patches (Koplik spots) may appear inside the mouth 2 to 3 days after symptoms appear.
  • Subsequently, a red rash occurs on the face and upper neck and then spreads to the body's trunk, hands, feet, and other parts.
  • The rash begins to fade after 5 to 6 days of attack.
Measles

Measles symptoms include high fever, cough, runny nose, conjunctivitis, and rash.

 

Three types of people are susceptible to measles

The following three types of susceptible people belong to measles:

  1. No measles vaccine
  2. Travel to high-incidence countries for measles
  3. Lack of vitamin A (if you don't get enough vitamin A from your diet, you can easily get measles, and the symptoms may be more serious)

Is Measles Dangerous ?

According to the latest report from the World Health Organization (WHO), there were over 900,000 people who died due to measles infection in 2016. In most cases, however, they lost their lives not to measles itself but to the complications that caused by it (e.g. pneumonia and encephalitis). Nevertheless, such complications will likely occur to those who are suffering from severe malnutrition (especially vitamin A deficiency).

Is there Cure for Measles ?

Although there are no medicine that are currently available for curing measles, one can take the following steps to prevent complications from developing and thus accelerate the time needed for recovery:

  • Drink plenty of water
  • Consume adequate amount of water and vitamin A

Should you take Measles Vaccine ?

People who were previously infected by measles will be immune to it for the rest of their life.

On the other hand, receiving vaccination (i.e. MMR) is an effective method to prevent measles infection, as the prevention rate can be as high as 97%. It is recommended for children to receive vaccination once before they reach the age of 1 and again in the age of 5 to develop adaptive immunity.

In an interview with the Central News Agency, Zhuang Renxiang (director of the Department of Health’s Deputy) stated that most people who are over the age of 40 had antibodies due to the fact that measles was once a pandemic in Taiwan. Because of this, two shots of vaccine were administrated to those who are under the age of 20 as a way to eliminate the possibility of such disease from reoccurring.

Please refrain from contacting infected individual and seek medical attention as soon as possible if you experience any symptoms of measles.

What is Chickenpox

Chickenpox is a viral infection that causes an itchy rash of spots all over the body and flu-like symptoms.

It used to be a common childhood, especially in kids under age 12. It's much rarer now, thanks to the varicella vaccine that kids get when they're 12 to 15 months old, followed by a booster shot at 4 to 6 years of age.

What Are the Signs and Symptoms of Chickenpox?

Chickenpox often starts without the classic rash, with a fever, headache, sore throat, or stomachache. These symptoms may last for a few days, with the fever in the 101°–102°F (38.3°–38.8°C) range.

The red, itchy skin rash usually starts on the abdomen or back and face, then spreads to almost everywhere else on the body (including the scalp, mouth, arms, legs, and genitals).

The rash begins as many small red bumps that look like pimples or insect bites. They appear in waves over 2 to 4 days, then develop into thin-walled blisters filled with fluid. The blister walls break, leaving open sores, which finally crust over to become dry, brown scabs.

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All three stages of the chickenpox rash (red bumps, blisters, and scabs) appear on the body at the same time. The rash may spread wider or be more severe in kids who have weak immune systems or skin disorders like eczema.

What Causes Chickenpox?

Chickenpox is caused by the varicella-zoster virus (VZV). This virus also can cause a painful skin rash called shingles (herpes zoster) later in life. After someone has had chickenpox, the virus stays dormant (sleeping) in the nervous system for the rest of his or her life, even though the chickenpox goes away. The virus can reactivate ("wake up") later as shingles.

Shingles symptoms include tingling, itching, or pain in one area of the body, followed by a rash with red bumps and blisters. Luckily, kids and teens who get shingles almost always have mild cases; severe shingles cases usually are in older people.

Kids who are vaccinated against chickenpox are much less likely to develop shingles when they get older. If it does happen, the case of shingles is usually milder and less likely to cause complications than in someone who wasn't immunized.

Is Chickenpox Contagious?

Chickenpox is very contagious — most kids with a sibling who's infected also will get it (if they haven't already had the disease or the vaccine), showing symptoms about 2 weeks after the first child does.

The chickenpox virus spreads both through the air (by coughing and sneezing) and by direct contact with mucus, saliva (spit), or fluid from the blisters. Chickenpox is contagious from about 2 days before the rash starts until all the blisters are crusted over.

Someone with shingles can spread chickenpox (but not shingles) to people who haven't previously had chickenpox or the vaccine. (Shingles can only develop in people who have already had chickenpox.)

A child with chickenpox should stay home and rest until the rash is gone and all blisters have dried, usually about 1 week. If you're unsure about whether your child is ready to return to school, ask your doctor.

Pregnant women, newborns, or anyone with a weakened immune system (for instance, from cancer treatments like chemotherapy or steroids) who gets chickenpox should see a doctor right away.

What Problems Can Happen?

Some people are more at risk for complications from chickenpox, including pregnant women, newborns born to mothers who had chickenpox, patients with leukemia, kids receiving drugs that suppress the immune system, and anyone with immune system problems.

If they're exposed to chickenpox, they might be given a medicine (zoster immune globulin) to reduce its severity.

Can Chickenpox Be Prevented?

Yes. The chickenpox vaccine is 99% effective at preventing the infection in kids. Doctors recommend that kids get the chickenpox vaccine as:

Injection when they're 12 to 15 months old.

 People 13 years of age and older who have never had chickenpox and aren't vaccinated should get two doses of the vaccine at least 28 days apart to be protected. Few people who've been vaccinated actually develop chickenpox, and those who do tend to have very mild cases and recover quickly.

Healthy kids who have had chickenpox do not need the vaccine — they usually have lifelong protection against the illness.

If a pregnant woman has had chickenpox before the pregnancy, the baby will be protected from infection for the first few months of life, since the mother's immunity is passed on to the baby through the placenta and breast milk.

How Is Chickenpox Diagnosed?

Doctors usually can diagnose chickenpox by looking at the telltale rash at either an in-office visit or a telemedicine visit.

Call your doctor if you think your child has chickenpox. The doctor can guide you in watching for complications and in choosing medicine to ease itching.

If you do take your child to the doctor, let the office know in advance that your child might have chickenpox. It's important not to expose other kids in the office — for some of them, a chickenpox infection could cause severe complications.

How Is Chickenpox Treated?

A virus causes chickenpox, so antibiotics can't treat it. But sometimes antibiotics are needed if bacteria infect the sores. This is common in kids because they scratch and pick at the blisters.

An antiviral medicine might be prescribed for people with chickenpox who are at risk for complications. The decision to use this will depend on a child's age and health, the extent of the infection, and the timing of the treatment. Your doctor can tell you if the medicine is right for your child.

How Can I Help My Child Feel Better?

To help relieve the itchiness, fever, and discomfort of chickenpox:

  • Use cool wet compresses or give baths in cool or lukewarm water every 3 to 4 hours for the first few days. Oatmeal bath products, available at supermarkets and drugstores, can help to relieve itching. (Baths do not spread the rash.)
  • Pat (don't rub) the body dry.
  • Put calamine lotion on itchy areas (but don't use it on the face, especially near the eyes).
  • Ask your doctor or pharmacist about pain-relieving creams to apply to sores in the genital area.
  • Ask the doctor about using over-the-counter medicine for itching.If your child has blisters in the mouth:
  • Serve cold, soft, and bland foods because chickenpox in the mouth can make drinking or eating difficult. Avoid anything acidic or salty, like orange juice or pretzels.
  • Give your child acetaminophento help relieve pain.Never give aspirin to kids with chickenpox. Such use has been linked to a rare but serious disease, Reye syndrome, which can lead to liver failure and even death.

    The chickenpox rash is very itchy. As much as possible, discourage kids from scratching to prevent broken blisters and infection. Preventing a bacterial infection is very important. Consider putting mittens or socks on your child's hands to prevent scratching during sleep. Also, trim fingernails and keep them clean.

    When Should I Call the Doctor?

    Most chickenpox infections don't need special medical treatment. But sometimes, problems can happen. Call the doctor if your child:

  • has a fever that lasts for more than 4 days or rises above 102°F (38.8°C)
  • has a severe cough or trouble breathing
  • has an area of rash that leaks pus (thick, yellowish fluid) or becomes red, warm, swollen, or sore
  • has a severe headache
  • is unusually drowsy or has trouble waking up
  • has trouble looking at bright lights
  • has difficulty walking
  • seems confused
  • seems very ill or is vomiting
  • has a stiff neck

Hsinchu County American School (HCAS) cares for your well-being.

The Zhubei Public Health Center visited our school to conduct hearing tests for our kindergarten.

We pay close attention to our kindergarten students on the development of their listening, vision, and growth and development. The earlier we can detect any abnormality, the quicker we can start on treatment in order to ensure our students’ daily life will not be effected.

Listening: (K1) The hearing test is done once per year and would be conducted by the Zhubei City Medical Care Service. This school year’s hearing test has been completed on Friday, March 16.

Vision: (K2-K3) The vision test will be conducted at the start of every semester at our school’s infirmary.
Height/Weight: (K1-K3) Every month, the infirmary will be examining students’ height and weight to ensure proper growth and development.

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